Copyright 著作權 vs Copyleft 著作傳

Copyleft says that anyone who redistributes the software, with or without changes, must pass along the freedom to further copy and change it. Copyleft guarantees that every user has freedom.

「Copyleft」一詞,是建立在 copyright 著作權保護基礎上保障自由的授權方式,但與常見的保留所有相關著作權利「all rights reserved」的專有授權方式相反,它授予公眾更多自由運用的權利,而且最重要的是「必須不能讓著作再度被專有保護起來」,所以稱之為 copyleft 的文字遊戲。

這是因為 copyright 常見被用來表示,作品受到著作權保護,而且作者保留所有權利,要取得授權請與作者聯絡的情況;而 copyleft 則是授權公眾許多自由運用的權利,著作能永續保持自由不被封鎖,也可以直接取得授權無須先和作者聯絡,兩者相反。

簡而言之,copyleft 的精神在於利用著作權的授權概念,讓軟體的自由永永遠遠地傳遞下去。

一直以來在想 copyleft 怎樣翻譯才會貼切,最好也來個文字遊戲。最早想說 copyleft 的價值在於能讓著作永續流傳,所以想說可以是「著作續」,但沒有玩到文字遊戲,「著作流」又太讓人無法理解,會誤以為在講流派。

所以又想,copyleft 的 left 可以想作是留存的 left,或許可以稱為「著作留」。不過這樣就超譯了,而且甚至會讓人誤以為是著作人想保留所有權利的「留」,那是完全相反的概念啊!於是就這樣不了了之。

最近才想到「著作傳」,起因 copyleft 的概念就在於與常見 copyright 授權方式相反,旨在保障自由,可以任意使用、研究修改、再次散布(流傳)、改善並回饋社群,而「傳」一字剛好點出它和常見 copyright 授權方式「保留」的特質相反,點出永遠相傳、流傳、傳遞,不再封鎖保護起來。

此外,傳這裡念ㄔㄨㄢˊ,著作傳跟著作權剛好唸起來很接近,也確實,copyleft 授權方式必須建立在著作權保護的基礎上,和沒有著作權保護的公眾領域 public domain 或拋棄著作權是不同的,沒有著作權保護代表無法用授權方式實現「必須不能讓著作再度被專有保護起來」。

此外,權和傳也是種發音類似的文字遊戲。至於有人將 copyleft 翻譯成「反版權」、「著作無」,那完全是錯誤的!無著作權的東西,或反著作權的東西是無法利用授權方式保持著作不再被封閉起來的!

[...] put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. This allows people to share the program and their improvements, if they are so minded. But it also allows uncooperative people to convert the program into proprietary software. They can make changes, many or few, and distribute the result as a proprietary product. People who receive the program in that modified form do not have the freedom that the original author gave them; the middleman has stripped it away.

根本上,copyleft 的授權概念建立在著作權保護的法規之上才能成立,本身必須依賴 copyright 才行,實際上 copyleft 的概念並非和「copyright(受著作權保護)」相反,而是和「常見的 all rights reserved(保留所有相關著作權利)授權方式」相反,是錯誤運用的文字遊戲,會讓人誤解(如反版權、著作無這類翻譯,就是被錯誤的文字遊戲誤導,以為是和著作權相反,但並不是)。copyleft 的概念離不開 copyright,發音類似的做法反而是更貼切的文字遊戲。
To copyleft a program, we first state that it is copyrighted; then we add distribution terms, which are a legal instrument that gives everyone the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the program's code, or any program derived from it, but only if the distribution terms are unchanged. Thus, the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.

因此,我會把 copyleft 翻譯為發音類似「著作權」的「著作傳」。

參考資料:What is Copyleft? by GNU Project


  1. Quote:"put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. This allows people to share the program and their improvements, if they are so minded. But it also allows uncooperative people to convert the program into proprietary software. "

    Public domain (CC 0) 本來就是拋棄所有權利,包括著作權,也因此的確是可以被拿去放在自己的作品內,不需任何條件,最後選擇封閉起來。不過目前為止,完全採用 CC0、完全開放授權的 "program",其實並不常見。CC 主要針對創作內容,因此 public domain / CC0 也比較常看到用在各類影音繪圖素材而非軟體程式。這類的素材被拿去商業閉源軟體內使用倒也是常有的事。

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直行橫列,以及 line (列/行), column (欄), row (列)

Permission 權能/取用權; Permission denied 取用遭拒; Ask for permission 請求權能/取用權; Don't have the right permission to 沒有權能/無權